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Remediation of Citrix ADC & NetScaler Vulnerability CVE-2019-19781

Remediation of Citrix ADC & NetScaler Vulnerability CVE-2019-19781

Remediation of Citrix ADC & NetScaler Vulnerability CVE-2019-19781

February 6, 2020

First things first – don't panic if you are one of the literally thousands of companies that were affected by CVE-2019-19781… because everyone was! But just because I say don't panic doesn't mean do nothing. I (DJ) have been working with several clients, experts and Citrix around solutions and I think we are in a place where most people have at least stopped the bleeding… but I grow concerned that many more have not.

Every. Single. Citrix ADC (NetScaler) was vulnerable and should be assumed to have been a target.

Some sentences are really hard to write. That last one was definitely one of them. But that all pales in comparison to the implications. The reality is- not only were several thousand companies not ready to handle this threat, my industry friends remain concerned that several thousand customers have not remediated because they didn't know how. Citrix and several sites including my own have given instructions – but if you don't know a few key things about the ADC and how to manage it outside of the GUI (Web Interface) then there is a confidence problem that has kept people from fixing the issue out of fear of locking out their users or making matters worse.

This has kept me busy at home and at hotel rooms for the last few months and I've come to realize I don't have the ability to help everyone. Here's what I can tell you:

  • Citrix ADC (NetScaler) VPX with a backup before December has been able to be patched and remediation performed in about 3 consulting hours.
  • Citrix ADC VPX with no backups have typically taken between 4 and 5 consulting hours.
  • Citrix ADC MPX (hardware platforms) are a particular challenge and in some cases have taken several evenings of downtime to resolve.
  • The skills needed to properly assess breaches, prevent them and fully remediate from the real threats of CVE-2019-19781 are those that are not commonly used, even by those that administrate Citrix environments.
  • Many customers deployed Citrix ADCs as a replacement to legacy Secure Gateways and have zero skills administrating NetScaler/ADCs, depending on the contractors that deployed them – contractors that often have moved on or are now so busy with these efforts on top of their existing workloads that it has become impossible to schedule help for many of them.
  • Worst of all – even though this has been a very popular and well documented case (my article “Are People Mining Bitcoin on your NetScaler (ADC) using CVE-2019-19781?” is the most popular article I've ever had. It eclipsed a nearly 3 year old popular article in a few weeks) many with Citrix NetScalers don't even know about the issue.

To help, I've developed a kind of a checklist/lesson plan, using my RiskLESS Methodology. Expand each section to see the detail of what needs to be done and the tools and knowledge you will need to be aware of to make it happen.

Understand

Understand the Threat

History of the issue

What is important to know about how the ADC works in this regard

What Hackers are doing (known threats)

What Citrix is Doing

Additional considerations

  • LDAP threats – high potential for network compromise and backdoors being setup up undetected
  • If LDAP account was also domain or elevated admin – critical to change password but also begin changing other domain accounts
  • SSL Key decode threats and need to re-key
  • NSROOT and any other local account passwords need to be changed

Detection

Citrix Tools
  • How to install the detection tool & use it
  • Web Admin Interface
  • Insight Services (CIS)
  • Shell bash scripts and python scripts
Command Line Inspection
  • Install PuTTY and SCP
  • Using SCP to download config + logs
  • Gathering breach info using the Citrix/FireEye Tool.

Documentation

Written Documentation
  • What you saw, when
  • Screenshots, etc
  • Document your findings of the exposure to management
  • Collect Passwords and store securely
    • NSROOT
    • LDAP account
    • myCitrix account
    • SSL provider
Remediation Considerations
  • Understand the remediation differences between VPX, MPX and SDX
  • If VPX/SDX – see if there are recoverable backups from before Dec 17th 2019 (if so, celebrate)
  • HA and Cluster considerations
  • Note to check all nodes for compromise – may make recovery easier
  • Firmware version considerations
  • Some versions of the firmware the remediation script did not work
  • Disclosure of breach and description to management
  • If LDAP account was elevated, severe danger requiring rapid disclosure to management and legal
Plan

Fast Remediation Steps

Determine what steps to take immediately and what will wait for a longer change window if this will be required (ie, MPX when access to the gateway will be needed during change window)

  • Emergency change considerations – brief outage for reboot
  • Apply remediation script and reboot
  • Create temp LDAP account password
  • Change LDAP account and/or password

Written Plan for Extended Remediation

  • Write out a plan of action based on your platform
    • Instructions for VPX
      • clean install
      • Plan for VPX recovery
      • Plan for HA secondary clean upgrade + fresh install primary
    • Instructions for SDX
    • Instructions for MPX
      • Special consideration for firmware ‘infection’
      • Optional recovery to trial VPX while recovering MPX
    • Instructions for changing passwords
    • Instructions for re-keying certs
    • Instructions and guidance for LDAP password and AD policies to deny interactive logon to that account (note- using “Domain Users” on network shares is a bad idea for this reason)

Change Management

  • Schedule outage(s)
    • Ideally- schedule complete Gateway outage by firewall rule blockage
    • VPX – estimated recovery time
    • MPX – estimated recovery time
    • Consideration – remediate now, update/upgrade firmware later
  • Communication plan (with users, management, IT)
  • Schedule staff or Consultants involved

Generate and store new passwords

  • USE A PASSWORD MANAGER – I use Dashlane
  • Any compromised password needs to be changed
  • Highly suggested that any person with Citrix Gateway access change their passwords

Download appropriate firmware

Change

During an outage and depending on your specific environment…

  • Run the remediation script

 During a more extended outage

  • Backup appliance firmware or VM
  • Backup running/saved config
  • Applying the configuration to new firmware or updating a clean backup
  • The Great Password Reset of 2020
    • LDAP (we recommend changing it again)
    • Service Accounts
    • Any account that has accessed Citrix via the gateway should be changed

Note – there are instructions on the Citrix website for all of this, but I'm betting if you were confident about them – you wouldn't have read this far. The good news is I think I can help. Scroll down if that's you after you read the final step.

Maintain

Monitoring

  • Command line monitoring
    • Httpaccess logs
    • top
  • Citrix tool to test for compromise
  • Web Interface watching for policy hits

Taking future notices seriously

You have a day or less. This is proof. Not to get preachy here but if there's one thing this whole event proves

Getting notified of future issues

Regular Tasks to schedule

  • Change LDAP password every month after breach for 3 months
  • Change NSROOT password every 90 days
  • Internal Health Check – watch for .xml files, etc
  • Health Check by qualified consultants

Get it Done NOW

It is my opinion that you need to be confident to do everything on this list and do it right now, if you haven't already.

The way I see it you have three options:

  1. Power thru it – spend the hours needed researching and making sure everything gets done. The good news is that there is plenty of information out there to help you get there- download the check list here.
  2. Hire someone like me to help. By all means, I'm willing to help. But as you can imagine I'm quite busy. As of this writing my first availability is in early March. You'll need 4 hours minimum and I charge a minimum of $185USD per hour ($740).
  3. Join my workshop on Feb. 17th. I'm taking a huge risk and setting aside a week, along with some of my friends and trusted advisors. We will walk you thru the process step by step and be available at regular times all week to answer your questions. The cost to join this workshop will be $399. If you are interested (or want your boss to pay for it) – see the contact form below and we'll get you in. Can't make it on the 17th? Don't worry – we'll be recording the sessions and I'll be available for office hours for your questions until March 30th, 2020 – and email after that (though hopefully you'd have fixed it by then!)

Grab my PDF Checklist

I put together a quick PDF document so you can make sure you've got your bases covered – download it here (no opt-in required)

Contact us for Help

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Are People Mining Bitcoin on your NetScaler (ADC) using CVE-2019-19781?

My own opinions about this aside in terms of ethical hacking – a group claiming to be acting in the collective best interest of the world has released a code that exploits CVE-2019-19781 and starts mining bitcoin on the ADC.

UPDATE: I have put together a remediation checklist and a few more details! You can download the checklist now – head to https://ctxpro.com/?p=1493 for more details.

Oh, NOW I have your attention, huh… What started out as an interesting vulnerability in Citrix NetScaler / ADC code going back clear to version 10… just became a bigger problem. And many people were putting off fixing it until today.

Fun little hacking for posturing is one thing. But now that money is involved, we see just how unethical this hacking really is. Manuel Kalloff has a great summary of the true nature of these impacts here: https://nerdscaler.com/2020/01/13/citrix-adc-cve-2019-19781-exploited-what-now/amp/

Note the massive uptick in incidents. These people aren't doing anyone any favors or trying to make a statement. People are out to make a coin at your expense. But surely it won't end there so you really need to pay attention!

You can also track this event here: https://www.reddit.com/r/blueteamsec/comments/en4m7j/multiple_exploits_for_cve201919781_citrix/

(please note – these are all external links and I can't validate any content in them because of that)

I will try to keep updates to this page as much as I am able – but for now please realize that until the dates below every NetScaler ADC is vulnerable without the code… and possibly even then.

Update 1.20.2020

Citrix has increased their efforts on this remediation with new firmware. Initial releases are out now, with key releases like 12.1 following on Jan 24th. Blog with details here: https://www.citrix.com/blogs/2020/01/19/vulnerability-update-first-permanent-fixes-available-timeline-accelerated/

Update 1.18.2020

I (DJ) am working with some additional industry professionals to create a step-by-step course that you or your company will be able to purchase. The course will guide you through what we know so far, what you should know and how to remediate it. More importantly, the course will be updated and updates announced to purchasers and have ‘office hours' for support via chat. The course will include videos, examples and downloadable templates. The course will be offered thru the Citrix Hero Community, our free Citrix geek exclusive Mighty Network app. Pricing for the course itself has not yet been determined but will be announced by this weekend. To get notification of this offering, join the community or sign up for our email list and get a free e-Book.

What we know about CVE-2019-19781

The vulnerability affects all supported product versions and all supported platforms:

• Citrix ADC and Citrix Gateway version 13.0 all supported builds

• Citrix ADC and NetScaler Gateway version 12.1 all supported builds

• Citrix ADC and NetScaler Gateway version 12.0 all supported builds

• Citrix ADC and NetScaler Gateway version 11.1 all supported builds

• Citrix NetScaler ADC and NetScaler Gateway version 10.5 all supported builds

https://support.citrix.com/article/CTX267027
Update Jan 17 2020 – ” This vulnerability also affects certain deployments of two older versions of our Citrix SD-WAN WANOP product versions 10.2.6 and version 11.0.3 ” from https://www.citrix.com/blogs/2020/01/17/citrix-updates-on-citrix-adc-citrix-gateway-vulnerability/

What this Citrix ADC Vulnerability Impacts

Basically- it allows an attacker to place arbitrary code into portions of the ADC which can allow for a variety of badness to occur. Badness like grabbing password files or mining bitcoin (or whatever), possibly even attempting to create other backdoors.

Update 1.20.2020 – I'd like to add some additional POSSIBLE impacts, including the possibility that ALL accounts that have gone thru the Citrix Gateway should have their passwords changed right away in addition to other potential impacts. Please review Thomas's article for additional information.

One thing I will say, especially given how certain people have responded to this – is that this does not at all shake my faith in Citrix ADCs. Show me a company that has never had an exploit – you'll see that same company probably is too small to really matter. NetScaler / ADC deployment is massive, and the fact that it took this long to discover the issue at all speaks to the stability of the platform. Those calling for abandoning Citrix ADC are either acting out of fear, trying to profit from it, or are just jerks.
No product out there is perfect or will never have an exploit found. Citrix is not ignoring this, though and neither should you. But don't be that person to use hurtful hashtags or spread fear rather than solutions.

Action Steps for CVE-2019-19781

Last update – 1.17.2020

Fix Script for Citrix NetScaler ADC

Use the instructions at https://support.citrix.com/article/CTX267679 right now. The extended Citrix community is working on additional scripts.
The easiest way to deploy these is to use Notepad ++ and PuTTY. I say this because you need to be aware of the way that your web browser will display quotation marks verses the way that the ADC will take it. Using Notepad ++ will help identify if you have a bad quote mark. Basically if one looks ‘upside down' from the other, you need to replace it with one from your keyboard.
Fortunately – the fix is quick but does require a reboot to take full effect.

UPDATE 1.17.2020

Some builds of NetScaler and Citrix ADC have not been properly applying the remediation patch due to a feature flaw that was patched in later builds. Full information from Citrix can be found here, but this looks to be specifically for builds In Citrix ADC and Citrix Gateway Release 12.1 build 50.28. You can logon to your ADC web admin page to verify the build – look in the upper right hand corner. I will be recommending an update regardless but if you are on this build you have to update for this to work, so I'd do so now.

https://www.citrix.com/blogs/2020/01/17/citrix-updates-on-citrix-adc-citrix-gateway-vulnerability/

Check for Vulnerability in your ADC

The US Government has released a method of checking for this flaw. See https://www.us-cert.gov/ncas/current-activity/2020/01/13/cisa-releases-test-citrix-adc-and-gateway-vulnerability and https://github.com/cisagov/check-cve-2019-19781

1.17.2020 – Citrix also released this at https://support.citrix.com/article/CTX269180

Update – 1-14-2020

If someone is cryptomining on your ADC- you'll see high utilization – but there's a catch. 100% is EXPECTED on newer versions of NetScaler/ADC.

Here's what do to. After you've run the prevention script and rebooted, get into the shell, or just enter

shell top -n 10

What you are likely to see is a process called NSPEE-00 or similar running at 100%. This is normal. What you DON'T want to see is other strange processes taking up a lot of CPU that stay that way. Knock on wood- so far I have not discovered any clients with active miners. But I have found a few that were compromised. To monitor continuously, just type in top without the -n 10. Once you're satisfied Ctrl-C will take you out of that.

However, in my mind, cryptomining is a secondary concern. Your company's information may have been exposed at some levels that have not yet been fully determined.

The big indicator of a compromise at this point is .xml files in directories they don't belong or have odd names. I will update this list soon but for now, look for some of the indicators noted at https://nerdscaler.com/2020/01/13/citrix-adc-cve-2019-19781-exploited-what-now/amp/ Always run the workaround script first, but if you suspect you've been exploited, exporting your configuration and configuring from fresh firmware isn't a bad idea.

If you are compromised:

  1. Take the ADC off the network.
  2. Change the password of any LDAP or other AD/network accounts stored on the ADC.
  3. Re-issue a new SSL Certificate and key file for any client SSL files on the appliance – the keys are stored in files that could theoretically have been read by the compromise.
  4. If this is a VPX appliance, if you have snapshots of the machine prior to Jan 9th, 2020 it may be worth restoring that first but this is NOT A GUARANTEE of safety. My suggestion to be completely sure is to save your configuration file and restore it to a new VPX download.
    1. Restore without starting – NOTE from the field: make sure your restore has the same Hardware address or your license will be invalid…
    2. Disconnect the network before starting
    3. Start the machine and verify using the console that the VPX does not appear compromised
    4. Change the nsroot password
    5. Attach the internal network only
    6. Run the fix (alternatively- type this via the console to be safer)
    7. attach the external network
    8. Keep an eye on the logs
  5. Replace SSL Certificates on the appliance at your earliest opportunity

Timeline and Updates

Jan 13 2020
Citrix has announced a timeline for ADC firmware that will include fixes.

Note- these are the initial timelines superseded on Jan 19th

VersionRefresh BuildExpected Release Date
10.510.5.70.x31st January 2020
11.111.1.63.x20th January 2020
12.012.0.63.x20th January 2020
12.112.1.55.x27th January 2020
13.013.0.47.x27th January 2020

Jan 14 2020

I have started working with clients to remediate compromises and double-check other clients. I've updated some suggested quick things above.

I'm tracking reports from AWS users that if their nsroot password was not changed during deployment, it would expose their instance ID – if anyone can confirm this please let me know so I can update this. It is probably safe to assume at this point that any information stored in the ADC can be read by someone who knows what to look for. Change those passwords, people!

…more updates as I have validated them – there are a few additional remediation scripts being evaluated by other CTAs and CTPs especially.

Jan 16 2020

Citrix released an officially supported way to scan for the vulnerability, though it is not exactly user friendly https://support.citrix.com/article/CTX269180

Jan 17 2020

Citrix Posted this blog article clarifying a few things: https://www.citrix.com/blogs/2020/01/17/citrix-updates-on-citrix-adc-citrix-gateway-vulnerability/

DJ Eshelman announced that he will be working with a few other industry professionals to create a video and community support course offering to help people remediate this issue.

Jan 19 2020

Citrix blog post with updated firmware releases.

Citrix ADC and Citrix Gateway
VersionRefresh BuildRelease Date
11.111.1.63.15January 19, 2020
12.012.0.63.13January 19, 2020
12.112.1.55.xJanuary 24, 2020
10.510.5.70.xJanuary 24, 2020
13.013.0.47.xJanuary 24, 2020
Citrix SD-WAN WANOP
ReleaseCitrix ADC ReleaseRelease Date
10.2.611.1.51.615January 24, 2020
11.0.311.1.51.615January 24, 2020
NetScaler Security for the XenApp Dummy – Part 1: Assess

NetScaler Security for the XenApp Dummy – Part 1: Assess

So you have this “NetScaler” thing to front end your XenApp or XenDesktop environment… But maybe you are like me and NetScaler Security isn't what you spend most of your day dealing with. So, how can you make sure in light of recent security threats that it is running properly? In a post in 2016 I discussed how to get an A+ Rating at SSL Labs for your NetScaler Gateway in under 5 minutes. I figured it was time for an update for 2017 taking some new things into consideration but approach this from the point of view of someone like me that isn't “A NetScaler Person.”

(last update: January, 2019)

(more…)

NetScaler Rating at SSL Labs to A+!

NetScaler Rating at SSL Labs to A+!

[*updated 1/4/2019 with new link for Citrix article]

Steven Wright of Citrix Consulting has released another guidance for getting an A+ NetScaler Rating at SSL Labs (SSLLabs.com) on June 9th, 2016. The good news is that I've validated it works- read on to see the proof!

Why You Want an A+ NetScaler Rating at SSLLabs.com

Security is very much front-of-mind these days, and fortunately SSLlabs.com has a tool to scan your site, including NetScaler Gateway, to detect known problems against current threats.

In case you missed it, you have a whole new reason to re-visit your NetScaler SSL configuration, even if it is a VPX which previously didn't support nifty security like TLS 1.2. This changed after the last round of updates, so you no longer are forced into an MPX to get good security (though admittedly the CPU usage is a bit higher without the offload chip offered in the MPX and SDX platforms).

If you are running a NetScaler VPX, your out-of-the-box configuration will likely give you a NetScaler Rating of either an F or a C in most cases. Around here, we go for the big grade- so here's how to get an A+ NetScaler Rating, even with a VPX.

Words of Warning

A few caveats that I know of – First off- I don't really consider myself an authority on NetScaler, so take all of this with a grain of salt and ALWAYS TEST BEFORE YOU GO LIVE IN PRODUCTION. Messing with SSL ciphers can cause outages, especially for NetScaler Gateway.

Second, if you need to support older clients, especially Windows XP clients, be VERY CAREFUL deploying all of these settings. You may be stuck with a “C” score for needing SSL v3 to stay turned on in some cases. Even a C rating can still be very secure, this is just how SSLLabs.com rates things even if there's just one attack vector left (unfortunately, SSL is a big one).

But…  if not, you can get a score that looks more like this:

SSLLabs.com A+ Rating

What an A+ Rating looks like from a NetScaler Gateway VPX

Before we go further, I want to reiterate that I'm just validating what someone else created- don't credit me with this, Steven Wright and Citrix Consulting Services (CCS) did all the work making this possible! Even though I still do occasional work for CCS, I want to make sure noone gets confused!

Previously, you may have looked here: https://www.citrix.com/blogs/2015/05/22/scoring-an-a-at-ssllabs-com-with-citrix-netscaler-the-sequel/  This was a good guide, but consider this article a replacement:https://www.citrix.com/blogs/2016/06/09/scoring-an-a-at-ssllabs-com-with-citrix-netscaler-2016-update/ 

But… in 2018 it was updated again: https://www.citrix.com/blogs/2018/05/16/scoring-an-a-at-ssllabs-com-with-citrix-netscaler-q2-2018-update/

Tested Configuration

The nice thing here is that the blog article has all the steps you need, so break out that puTTY connection and get started!

First things first- note your current rating at SSLlabs.com – I typically do NOT share my results, but feel free if you like to brag.

My configuration included a more modern GoDaddy SSL cert with SHA256 and RSA 2048 strength on a NetScaler VPX 200 with the Enterprise license.

I tested this with firmware 11.0 65.72.nc using the NetScaler Gateway wizard. In my case, it works, so don't hate me for taking a shortcut 🙂

As I mentioned above- this gave me a NetScaler Rating of “C”. You can test yours by going back to SSLLabs.com and hitting ‘clear cache' to re-test.

SSLLabs.com NetScaler Rating of C

SSLLabs C Rating on NetScaler VPX

Going from C to B

  • Disable SSL v3
  • I Disabled TLS 1 and 1.1
  • I tried first enabling ECDHE cipher group settings included as a default

Not too bad- a Solid B with this change! I thought it would be an A- but I think there may be a few things in the ECDHE group that will rob you of the rating. You'll need to define your ciphers manually.

SSLLabs B Rating on NetScaler VPXSSLLabs B Rating on NetScaler VPX

Getting a NetScaler Rating of A+

  • Removed Ciphers (all)
  • Implemented STS (Strict Transport Security)
  • Added the cipher lists that Steven came up with, below
  • Bound the new cipher sets and made sure to use the ECC Curve configuration
Here's the commands to use in the CLI- note that everything in BOLD ITALIC is a name you will need to give it yourself, not a specific command.

add ssl cipher custom-ssllabs-cipher
bind ssl cipher custom-ssllabs-cipher -cipherName TLS1.2-ECDHE-RSA-AES256-GCM-SHA384
bind ssl cipher custom-ssllabs-cipher -cipherName TLS1.2-ECDHE-RSA-AES128-GCM-SHA256
bind ssl cipher custom-ssllabs-cipher -cipherName TLS1.2-ECDHE-RSA-AES-256-SHA384
bind ssl cipher custom-ssllabs-cipher -cipherName TLS1.2-ECDHE-RSA-AES-128-SHA256
bind ssl cipher custom-ssllabs-cipher -cipherName TLS1-ECDHE-RSA-AES256-SHA
bind ssl cipher custom-ssllabs-cipher -cipherName TLS1-ECDHE-RSA-AES128-SHA
bind ssl cipher custom-ssllabs-cipher -cipherName TLS1.2-DHE-RSA-AES256-GCM-SHA384
bind ssl cipher custom-ssllabs-cipher -cipherName TLS1.2-DHE-RSA-AES128-GCM-SHA256
bind ssl cipher custom-ssllabs-cipher -cipherName TLS1-DHE-RSA-AES-256-CBC-SHA
bind ssl cipher custom-ssllabs-cipher -cipherName TLS1-DHE-RSA-AES-128-CBC-SHA
bind ssl cipher custom-ssllabs-cipher -cipherName TLS1-AES-256-CBC-SHA
bind ssl cipher custom-ssllabs-cipher -cipherName TLS1-AES-128-CBC-SHA
bind ssl cipher custom-ssllabs-cipher -cipherName SSL3-DES-CBC3-SHA
unbind ssl vserver DJ_NSG -cipherName DEFAULT
bind ssl vserver DJ_NSG -cipherName custom-ssllabs-cipher
bind ssl vserver DJ_NSG -eccCurveName ALL

  • Next, I needed to allow secure renegotiation, and enable STS on my NetScaler Gateway
set ssl parameter -denySSLReneg FRONTEND_CLIENT
add rewrite action insert_STS_header insert_http_header Strict-Transport-Security "\"max-age=157680000\""
add rewrite policy enforce_STS true insert_STS_header
bind vpn vserver DJ_NSG -policy enforce_STS -priority 100 -gotoPriorityExpression NEXT -type RESPONSE

SSLLabs.com NetScaler Rating A+

That's it! In under 5 minutes, going from NetScaler Rating at SSLLabs.com of C to an A+!!!

I anticipate this should work on an MPX just as well, if not better- but I haven't yet tested it. If you have- comment below with the firmware version you used and your score!

Feel free to share this with your friends, and I welcome any feedback below- but make sure if you have anything that definitely needs Steven's attention to leave a comment at https://www.citrix.com/blogs/2016/06/09/scoring-an-a-at-ssllabs-com-with-citrix-netscaler-2016-update/